Standard reference markers for accurate, reproducible synchrotron x-ray energies are obtained using a three Si crystal spectrometer. The first two crystals are in the monochromator and the third is used to obtain diffraction markers which monitor the energy. Then for any value of the glancing angle on the reference Si crystal the energy for the (333) diffraction must occur at 3/4 that of the (444) and 3/5 of that for the (555). This establishes for the first time an absolute synchrotron energy scale. Higher-order diffractions are used to determine excitation line profiles. We conclude that the use of reference diffractions is necessary to measure reproducible x-ray energies and to analyze the incident photons' line profile. The detection of diffractions near the edge of measurement and near the Cu edge will provide a fast secondary standard which will allow comparison of edge data between different laboratories. The diffraction profiles will allow the proper analysis of spectral line widths.
Juana Vivó Acrivos, S.S. P. Parkin, K. Hathaway, J. R. Reynolds, M. P. Klein, A. Thompson, and D. Goodin. "Measurement of Synchrotron x-ray energies and line shapes using diffraction markers" Review of Scientific Instruments (1982): 575-581. doi:10.1063/1.1137026