The error performance of bandwith-efficient concatenated multilevel coded modulation (MCM) schemes for digital satellite broadcasting is analyzed. Nonstandard partitioning, multistage decoding, and outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are employed to provided unequal error protection capabilities.
Morelos-Zaragoza, Robert H. and Imai, Hideki, "Concatenated Multilevel Coded Modulation Schemes for Digital Satellite Broadcasting" (1997). Faculty Publications. Paper 11.