A non-data aided carrier recovery technique using digital modulation format identification called multi-mode PLL (Phase Locked Loop) is proposed. This technique can be interpreted as a modulation identification method that is robust against static phase and frequency offsets. The performance of the proposed technique is studied and the analytical expressions are derived for the probability of lock detection, acquisition time over AWGN channel in the cases of M-PSK and M-QAM modulations with respect to frequency offset and signal-to-noise ratio.
Kenta Umebayashi, Robert H. Morelos-Zaragoza, and Ryuji Kohno. "Method of Non-Data-Aided Carrier Recovery with Modulation Identification" Faculty Publications (2004).