This article analyzes the effects of international connections on India’s nuclear program; specifically, the use of international norms and resources by domestic actors to influence the Indian nuclear enclave. These actors are from the Indian executive (pressure from above) as well as civil society (pressure from below). India’s self-presentation as a responsible state necessitates compliance with international norms, and concomitant restraints on the nuclear estate from ‘above.’ Environmentalists, local residents, and their transnational allies seek to make the nuclear complex more accountable, responsive, and transparent by using social media, civil society institutions, and cross-border links. The Indian case suggests that while studying the effects of international connections, analysts should open up the ‘black box’ of the state. Moreover, analysts must take into account that international connections can be resources for, and not merely restraints on, domestic actors. © 2013 The Korean Journal of International Studies.
Karthika Sasikumar. "Enclave Under Siege: International Norms and Challenges to the Indian Nuclear Complex" Korean Journal of International Studies (2013): 355-393. doi:10.14731/kjis.2013.12.11.2.355