National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data reveal that students with disabilities who are emergent bilinguals (English language learners) have the lowest levels of profficiency in reading and mathematics among all student groups. We consider issues related to the instruction of emergent bilinguals, including those identified as having specific learning disabilities, using a Response to Intervention (RTI)/Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) model. In so doing, we argue that instructional practices consistent with a robust Tier 1 framework are beneficial to emergent bilinguals with and without learning disabilities while differentiating Tier 2 and 3 interventions may improve outcomes for emergent bilingual students at risk for learning disabilities. To optimize the delivery of services to emergent bilinguals with and without learning disabilities, we propose a collaborative triad among general education, special education, and bilingual resource teachers. We consider implications for classroom practice, stafing, professional development, and educator preparation.
Andrea Golloher, David Whitenack, Lisa Simpson, and Donna Sacco. "From the Ground Up: Providing Support to Emergent Bilinguals to Distinguish Language Difference From Disability" Insights on Learning Disabilities (2018): 127-147.
Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education Commons, Disability and Equity in Education Commons, Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research Commons, Language and Literacy Education Commons