Publication Date

Spring 2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)




Eduardo Muñoz-Muñoz


culturally sustaining pedagogy, reflection, student teaching, teacher education, two worlds program

Subject Areas

Educational leadership


There is a vast demographic mismatch between California’s public school teachers (who are majority White, mono-lingual English-speaking women) and California’s public school students. Though universities responsible for educating preservice teachers often include coursework that attempts to help address this demographic mismatch, such as instruction about Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy, if preservice teachers do not get the chance to practice this pedagogy in their fieldwork placement, they tend to fall into to the two-worlds problem. The two-worlds problem posits that preservice teachers view constructivist and Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies learned at the university as theoretical and incompatible with actual teaching, and so they adopt the traditional pedagogies of their mentor teachers. This study offers one way to bridge this two-worlds gap, using the triad meeting (preservice teacher, mentor teacher, and university supervisor) as connective tissue between coursework and fieldwork. This study introduced a Culturally Sustaining guided reflection protocol into the triad meeting and proposes that engaging in such reflection during student teaching may help preservice teachers become in-service teachers who are better equipped to serve their future BIPOC students.

Available for download on Thursday, February 27, 2025