Publication Date

Spring 2010

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Tommy L. Lott


Double-Consciousness, Ethnic Minorities, Identity, People of Color, Race, Social Injustice

Subject Areas

Philosophy; Ethnic Studies


Race is a major axis of social injustice in America. Social injustice is due to both maldistribution of material resources and opportunities and non-recognition or mis-recognition of people of color. One form of mis-recognition is the accusation that a person of color is not a real American, creating a conflict of identities (i.e., racial and American): a double-consciousness. This accusation has its origins in faulty ideas about race, identity, and race-group membership.

This paper presents a new model of identity that addresses these faulty ideas and provides a conceptual structure within which one can consistently maintain a single-consciousness while maintaining identifications with various domains of identity. Also discussed are the ramifications of such a model, implications for group action, a case study of Muslim-Americans, and the ramifications of President Obama's election.