Title

Analysis of Scapular Muscle EMG Activity During Elastic Resistance Oscillation Exercises From the Perspective of Different Arm Positions

Publication Date

7-1-2020

Document Type

Article

Department

Kinesiology

Publication Title

Sports Health

Volume

12

Issue

4

DOI

10.1177/1941738120929305

First Page

395

Last Page

400

Abstract

Background: Little is known about the optimal exercise intensity and the effects of arm position on elastic resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate scapular muscle activity in different arm positions utilized during standing elastic resistance exercise. Hypothesis: Lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and infraspinatus (IS) muscle activity will vary across arm positions above shoulder level. Also, oscillation resistance exercise will result in increased muscle activity compared with isometric contraction. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A total of 19 uninjured male collegiate baseball players volunteered to participate in this study. The electromyography (EMG) activity of the LT, upper trapezius (UT), middle deltoid (MD), SA, and IS muscles was determined using surface EMG in 3 arm positions: diagonal pattern 1 (D1), 120° of shoulder abduction (120), and 90° shoulder abduction with external rotation and elbow flexion (90/90) during both isometric contraction and oscillation resistance exercise. Results: No difference in EMG activity of the LT muscle was found between the 120 and 90/90 position. However, the 120 position increased UT and MD muscle activity significantly more than those of the 90/90 position. The D1 arm position significantly increased SA muscle activity more than the 120 and 90/90 positions while the LT muscle activity was nearly silent. Conclusion: The standing 90/90 position effectively generated both LT and IS muscle EMG activity while minimizing both UT and MD muscle activity. Clinical Relevance: The use of oscillation movements under elastic loading can create high muscle activation in the LT muscle without an adverse effect of the humeral head position and scapular rotation.

Keywords

elastic resistance exercise, electromyography, lower trapezius, overhead athletes

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