Publication Date


Document Type



Communicative Disorders and Sciences

Publication Title

Journal of Voice




Transgender individuals may seek a variety of gender-affirming health and educational services, including voice modification from speech-language pathologists. Measuring the client's self-perception of their communication experiences is crucial for providing client-centered services and measuring outcomes. However, there is currently no validated assessment tool for the nonbinary population, a part of the transgender population. This study explores the voice-related concerns and experiences among the nonbinary population to create a valid measure of their self-perception of voice. Ten nonbinary individuals were surveyed about their voice-related concerns and experiences. A thematic analysis of the responses led to the development of the questionnaire, titled the Voice-related Experiences of Nonbinary Individuals. The questionnaire was systematically evaluated for its content validity by a panel of speech-language pathologist experts in transgender voice services. Outcomes of this analysis supported the measure's content validity and motivated further revisions. This is the first assessment tool that measures self-perception of voice and voice-related experiences for nonbinary individuals. Initial psychometric testing supported its content validity and further research is needed for large-scale testing of validity and reliability.


Transgender, Nonbinary, Voice, Gender-affirmative care, Questionnaire


This is the Version of Record and can also be read online here.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.