Understanding the underlying functions and interplaying systems that make up the respiratory system is a crucial step in the research and development of treatments for respiratory illnesses. In this literature review, I explore the complex biochemical processes that occur in the pulmonary epithelium and endothelium. As epithelial and endothelial cells serve a multitude of functions such as host protection and nutrient regulation, discussing the interplay between these cells and intercellular junctions and their immediate impact on the respiratory system is essential to understanding the impact of respiratory dysfunctions and diseases. This review further examines the different types of intercellular junctions in pulmonary epithelium and endothelium, their overall composition, and how they maintain cell membrane integrity by appropriately responding to environmental stimuli to grant a comprehensive understanding of these systems.


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