Authors

Britton Stephens, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Matthew Long, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Ralph Keeling, University of California, San Diego
Eric Kort, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Colm Sweeney, University of Colorado Boulder
Eric Apel, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Elliot Atlas, University of Miami
Stuart Beaton, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Jonathan Bent, University of Colorado Boulder
Nicola Blake, University of California, Irvine
James Bresch, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Joanna Casey, University of Colorado Boulder
Bruce Daube, Harvard University
Minghui Diao, San Jose State UniversityFollow
Ernesto Diaz, California Institute of Technology
Heidi Dierssen, University of Connecticut
Valeria Donets, University of Miami
Bo-Cai Gao, Naval Research Laboratory
Michelle Gierach, California Institute of Technology
Robert Green, California Institute of Technology
Justin Haag, California Institute of Technology
Matthew Hayman, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Alan Hills, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Martín Hoecker-Martínez, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Shawn Honomichl, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Rebecca Hornbrook, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Jorgen Jensen, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Rong-Rong Li, Naval Research Laboratory
Ian McCubbin, California Institute of Technology
Kathryn McKain, University of Colorado Boulder
Eric Morgan, University of California, San Diego
Scott Nolte, California Institute of Technology
Jordan Powers, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Bryan Rainwater, University of Colorado Boulder
Kaylan Randolph, University of Connecticut
Mike Reeves, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Sue Schauffler, University of Miami
Katherine Smith, University of Colorado Boulder
Mackenzie Smith, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Jeff Stith, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Gregory Stossmeister, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Darin Toohey, University of Colorado Boulder
Andrew Watt, National Center for Atmospheric Research

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

February 2018

ISSN

0003-0007

Abstract

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to improve observational constraints on the seasonal exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen with the Southern Ocean. The campaign also included measurements of anthropogenic and marine biogenic reactive gases; high-resolution, hyperspectral ocean color imaging of the ocean surface; and microphysical data relevant for understanding and modeling cloud processes. In each of these components of the ORCAS project, the campaign has significantly expanded the amount of observational data available for this remote region. Ongoing research based on these observations will contribute to advancing our understanding of this climatically important system across a range of topics including carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry and transport, and cloud physics. This article presents an overview of the scientific and methodological aspects of the ORCAS project and highlights early findings.

Comments

This article was published by the American Meteorological Society for the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 99, issue 2, pp. 381-402, 2018. The article can also be found online at this link.
© Copyright 2018 American Meteorological Society (AMS). Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. All AMS journals and monograph publications are registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (http://www.copyright.com). Questions about permission to use materials for which AMS holds the copyright can also be directed to permissions@ametsoc.org. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement, available on the AMS website (http://www.ametsoc.org/CopyrightInformation).

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