It is well established that GHG emissions must be reduced by 50% to 80% by 2050 in order to limit global temperature increase to 2°C. Achieving reductions of this magnitude in the transportation sector is a challenge and requires a multitude of policies and technology options. The research presented here analyzes three scenarios: changes in the perceived price of travel, land-use intensification, and increases in transit. Elasticity estimates are derived using an activity-based travel model for the state of California and broadly representative of the U.S. The VISION model is used to forecast changes in technology and fuel options that are currently forecast to occur in the U.S., providing a life cycle GHG forecast for the road transportation sector. Results suggest that aggressive policy action is needed, especially pricing policies, but also more on the technology side. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles are in particular need of additional fuel or technology-based GHG reductions.
Greenhouse gas emissions, gap analysis, activity-based modeling
Robert B. Noland, Andrew I. Kay, Robert B. Noland, and Caroline J. Rodier. "Transportation Futures: Policy Scenarios for Achieving Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets, MNTRC Report 12-11" Mineta Transportation Institute Publications (2014).