SJSU ScholarWorksCopyright (c) 2022 San Jose State University All rights reserved.
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu
Recent documents in SJSU ScholarWorksen-usSun, 23 Jan 2022 01:47:48 PST3600Can Californian Households Save Money on Transportation Costs by Living in Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs)?
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/mti_publications/381
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/mti_publications/381Thu, 20 Jan 2022 14:33:16 PST
Many residents in large Californian metropolitan areas are heavily burdened by housing costs. Advocates, researchers, and elected officials in California are debating whether transit-oriented development (TOD) could be an effective tool to mitigate the housing affordability problem by increasing housing supply and reducing transportation costs in transit-rich neighborhoods. This study contributes to this debate by estimating how much Californian families can save on transportation costs by living in transit-oriented developments (TODs). By utilizing the confidential version of the 2010–2012 California Household Travel Survey, this study evaluates the impact of TOD on household transportation expenditures by comparing TOD households with two control groups. When controlling for household demographics, TOD households save $1,232 per year on transportation expenditures—18% of their total annual transportation expenditures. When controlling for both demographics and neighborhood environment, TOD households save $429 per year—about 6% of their total annual transportation expenditures. The study confirms that Californian households save money on transportation costs by living in TODs mainly because they own fewer vehicles. About two-thirds of the savings can be attributed to transit-friendly neighborhood environment and one-third to access to rail transit, which highlights the importance of integrating a rail transit system with supportive land use planning and neighborhood design.
]]>
Hongwei DongSeeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/483
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/483Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:15 PST
Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students’ ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.
]]>
Taras Gula et al.Mathematics and StatisticsMathematical tasks, study approaches, and course grades in undergraduate mathematics: a year-by-year analysis
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/482
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/482Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:14 PST
Students approach learning in different ways, depending on the experienced learning situation. A deep approach is geared toward long-term retention and conceptual change while a surface approach focuses on quickly acquiring knowledge for immediate use. These approaches ultimately affect the students’ academic outcomes. This study takes a cross-sectional look at the approaches to learning used by students from courses across all four years of undergraduate mathematics and analyses how these relate to the students’ grades. We find that deep learning correlates with grade in the first year and not in the upper years. Surficial learning has no correlation with grades in the first year and a strong negative correlation with grades in the upper years. Using Bloom's taxonomy, we argue that the nature of the tasks given to students is fundamentally different in lower and upper year courses. We find that first-year courses emphasize tasks that require only low-level cognitive processes. Upper year courses require higher level processes but, surprisingly, have a simultaneous greater emphasis on recall and understanding. These observations explain the differences in correlations between approaches to learning and course grades. We conclude with some concerns about the disconnect between first year and upper year mathematics courses and the effect this may have on students.
]]>
Wes Maciejewski et al.Mathematics and StatisticsFlipping the calculus classroom: an evaluative study
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/481
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/481Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:13 PST
Classroom flipping is the practice of moving new content instruction out of class time, usually packaging it as online videos and reading assignments for students to cover on their own, and devoting in-class time to interactive engagement activities. Flipping has garnered a large amount of hype from the popular education media and has been adopted in a variety of contexts. Despite this high amount of interest, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of classroom flipping on student academic outcomes. Specifically, no rigorous studies of the effects of flipping a mathematics course on students’ mathematical understandings and achievement appear in the literature. This article reports results from a control group study of flipping a large (N = 690), first-year university calculus course for life sciences students. Students in the flipped course sections on average outperformed their counterparts in the traditional sections on the final exam, though only by approximately 8%. A more detailed analysis reveals the true beneficiaries in a flipped classroom—those with high basic mathematical ability and low initial calculus knowledge. Gains for this group are considerable: approximately 10% on the final, with an effect size of d = 0.56, and comparable gains on an independent measure of calculus concept mastery. This study positions classroom flipping as an effective practice in undergraduate mathematics and calls for further research into the mechanisms behind its effectiveness.
]]>
Wes MaciejewskiMathematics and StatisticsThe Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey: an instrument to assess expert-like views and dispositions among undergraduate mathematics students
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/479
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/479Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:12 PST
One goal of an undergraduate education in mathematics is to help students develop a productive disposition towards mathematics. A way of conceiving of this is as helping mathematical novices transition to more expert-like perceptions of mathematics. This conceptualization creates a need for a way to characterize students' perceptions of mathematics in authentic educational settings. This article presents a survey, the Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (MAPS), designed to address this need. We present the development of the MAPS instrument and its validation on a large (N = 3411) set of student data. Results from various MAPS implementations corroborate results from analogous instruments in other STEM disciplines. We present these results and highlight some in particular: MAPS scores correlate with course grades; students tend to move away from expert-like orientations over a semester or year of taking a mathematics course; and interactive-engagement type lectures have less of a negative impact, but no positive impact, on students' overall orientations than traditional lecturing. We include the MAPS instrument in this article and suggest ways in which it may deepen our understanding of undergraduate mathematics education.
]]>
Warren Code et al.Mathematics and StatisticsInstructors' Perceptions of their Students' Conceptions:
The Case in Undergraduate Mathematics
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/480
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/480Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:12 PST
How a student conceives the nature of a subject they study affects the approach they take to that study and ultimately their learning outcome. This conception is shaped by prior experience with the subject and has a lasting impact on the student's learning. For subsequent education to be effective, an instructor must link the current topic to the student's prior knowledge. Short of assessing their students, an instructor relies on their subjective experience, intuitions, and perceptions about this prior knowledge. These perceptions shape the educational experience. The current study explores, in the context of undergraduate mathematics, the alignment of instructors' perceptions of student conceptions of mathematics and the students' actual conceptions. Using a version of the Conceptions of Mathematics Questionnaire, instructors of lower-year courses were found to have overestimated, while upper-year course instructors underestimated, their students' fragmented conceptions of mathematics. Instructors across all years underestimate their students' cohesive conceptions. This misalignment of perspectives may have profound implications for practice, some of which are discussed.
]]>
Wes MaciejewskiMathematics and StatisticsDeveloping flexible procedural knowledge in undergraduate calculus
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/478
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/478Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:11 PST
Mathematics experts often choose appropriate procedures to produce an efficient or elegant solution to a mathematical task. This flexible procedural knowledge distinguishes novice and expert procedural performances. This article reports on an intervention intended to aid the development of undergraduate calculus students’ flexible use of procedures. Two sections of the same course were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Treatment students completed an assignment on which they resolved derivative-finding problems with alternative methods and compared the two resulting solutions. Control students were assigned a list of functions to differentiate. On the post-intervention test, treatment students were more likely to use a variety of solution methods without prompting than the control. Moreover, the set of treatment section solutions were closer to those of a group of mathematics experts. This study presents evidence that not only is flexible procedural knowledge a key skill in tertiary mathematics, it can be taught.
]]>
Wes Maciejewski et al.Mathematics and StatisticsJustifications for choices made in procedures
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/476
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/476Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:10 PST
In any procedural mathematical situation, there are multiple ways of achieving the same answer. Given this observation, we ask, why choose one procedural solution over another? We address this question here with data drawn from interviews conducted with university students engaged in row-reducing matrices. During their tasks, the students voiced a variety of justifications for the procedural steps they enacted. Through a phenomenographical analysis (Marton, Instructional Science, 10, 177–200, 1981) of their utterances, we construct a framework for justifications for choices made within procedures with two broad categories, algorithmic and anticipatory. By comparison, this is similar to the creative/imitative reasoning framework of Lithner (Educational Studies in Mathematics, 67, 255–276, 2008), a framework primarily emerging from less procedural settings. We suggest that, given this richness in justifications brought forth by a procedural setting, when used effectively, instruction in mathematical procedures has the potential to contribute to deeper, more flexible forms of mathematical knowledge overall.
]]>
Wes Maciejewski et al.Mathematics and StatisticsFuture-Oriented Thinking and Activity in Mathematical Problem Solving
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/477
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/477Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:10 PST
The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the importance of “thinking ahead” in mathematical problem solving. This process, though seemingly central to the work of mathematicians, seems to be largely overlooked in the mathematics education literature. This chapter presents my recent attempts to characterize future-oriented processes in mathematical work and summarizes evidence of mathematicians engaging in such processes. The main new results presented here concern students’ future thinking in mathematical situations. Student participants’ work in problem situations was analysed through the lens of mathematical foresight. This analysis serves to deepen the mathematical foresight model and opens up a number of directions for future research.
]]>
Wes MaciejewskiMathematics and StatisticsLet Your Students Cheat on Exams
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/475
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/475Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:09 PST
What if your students could access any resource during a test? How would they react? How would you react? This paper presents some results from a trial of allowing students access to notes, calculators, and any device connected to the internet, which occurred during a midterm in a second-year ordinary differential equations university course. This was generally well-received by the students and feedback informed a subsequent use of this approach in a mathematical reasoning course. I argue that this open-resource exam protocol affords the opportunity for less routine and possibly more conceptual engagement with mathematics.
]]>
Wes MaciejewskiMathematics and StatisticsChange Comes from Without: Lessons Learned in a Chaotic Year
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/474
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/474Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:08 PST
Our university is one campus of the larger, 23-campus California State University system. In 2017, the Chancellor of the system discontinued the developmental mathematics programs at all 23 campuses. This caught us by surprise and compelled us to act quickly. This article gives an overview of our response, highlighting the change our department underwent to improve our pre-calculus stream and general education courses, making them more interactive, supportive, and student-centered.
]]>
Wes Maciejewski et al.Mathematics and StatisticsTeaching math in real time
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/472
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/472Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:07 PST
Narrative, first-person accounts of a collective, traumatic event preserve the authenticity of the experience and defend against inaccurate retrospective idealizations. Such artifacts allow us time to process the event, extract the lessons it has for us, and to bring these lessons to bear on our practices. I offer my own narrative here, as a practitioner and researcher, of daily experiences of teaching mathematics in the USA during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Sudden perturbations to our regular educational practices expose ways in which those practices are incomplete or outright unstable. This, in turn, troubles the theories underpinning our practices. I offer my narrative as a point of communal reflection on what we do and know, and how we might do and know it better.
]]>
Wes MaciejewskiMathematics and StatisticsBetween confidence and procedural flexibility in calculus
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/473
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/faculty_rsca/473Thu, 20 Jan 2022 09:19:07 PST
Greater flexibility with procedures is known to be associated with greater conceptual knowledge of mathematics and vice versa. In parallel, a student’s emotional relationship to mathematics – i.e. their ‘affect’ – is known to influence how they learn and perform in mathematics. For example, a confident student may engage more fully with mathematics, thereby improving their knowledge and skill acquisition and performance. What remains to be understood is the relationship between a student’s affect and their procedural flexibility. The results of this study indicate a positive, albeit moderate, correlation between a student’s confidence and their flexibility with calculus procedures. This reveals a potential avenue to improved mathematical understanding and performance: the symbiosis between confidence and flexible procedural knowledge.
]]>
Wes MaciejewskiMathematics and StatisticsMultimodal Detection of Cyberbullying on Twitter
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_projects/1059
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_projects/1059Wed, 19 Jan 2022 20:53:16 PST
Cyberbullying detection is one of the trending topics of research in recent years, due to the popularity of social media and the lack of limitations about using electronic communications. Detection of cyberbullying may prevent some bullying behaviors online. This paper introduced a Multimodal system that makes use of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Tensor Fusion Network, VGG-19 Network, and Multi-Layer Perceptron model, for the purpose of cyberbullying detection. This system can not only analyze the messages sent but also the extra information related to the messages (meta-information) and the images contained in the messages. The proposed system was trained and tested on Twitter datasets, achieving accuracy scores of 93%, which was 4% higher than scores of the benchmark text-only model using the same dataset and 6.6% higher than previous work. With the results, we believed that the proposed system performs well and it will provide new ideas for future works.
]]>
Jiabao QiuThe Fresno State Transportation Challenge
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/mti_publications/380
https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/mti_publications/380Tue, 18 Jan 2022 11:34:08 PST
The Fresno State Transportation Challenge uses an action civics approach to support K-12 students in developing transportation-related projects that have a positive impact on the community. In 2020 the goal was to expand, refine, and create structures to sustain the implementation of the Transportation Challenge across subsequent years. As a result of the COVID pandemic, the process and goals of the project were adapted. The project was extended into April 2021 and was entirely conducted through remote participation. The focus was on two high schools. The expansion into the high school age bracket was successful and the experience with these two projects will allow for easier expansion in additional high schools in the future. One high school focused on the topic of active mobility, specifically biking, and addressed the challenge of how to get more students to bike to school. The other high school combined the transportation challenge with an economic vitalization project. The students were asked to also develop a modern transportation concept. Both projects exposed high school students to the topic of transportation and expanded awareness of transportation careers. Students also developed important competencies in the domains of problem solving, collaboration, communication, and leadership.
]]>
Christian Wandeler et al.