Faculty Publications

Document Type


Publication Date

April 2018

Publication Title

American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting




Classroom Assessment, Teacher Evaluation, Teacher Knowledge (cultural/content/pedagogical)


Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Teacher Education and Professional Development


Decades of research supports that teacher engagement in formative assessment (FA) can powerfully impact student learning outcomes (Black & Wiliam, 1998; Hattie, 2009, 2012). Yet less is known about teacher development of FA skills on a continuum of practice. This empirical study designed, piloted, and examined test content validity of a performance-based assessment of teachers’ FA practice related to questioning “moves” in the context of six multilingual high needs middle school mathematics classrooms. Qualitative comparative analysis of triangulated evidence of teachers’ planning for, enacting, and reflecting on posing, pausing, and probing “moves” found differences among teachers’ probing in particular, related to their planning for probing and actions to foster student-to-student probing.


Paper presented as part of the session: Research, Evaluation, Assessment, and Accountability in Schools: Featuring the Analytic Explorations of Graduate Student Scholars. This paper is also available in the AERA Online Paper Repository. Each presenter retains copyright on the full-text paper. Repository users should follow legal and ethical practices in their use of repository material; permission to reuse material must be sought from the presenter, who owns copyright. Users should be aware of the AERA Code of Ethics.