Decades of research supports that teacher engagement in formative assessment (FA) can powerfully impact student learning outcomes (Black & Wiliam, 1998; Hattie, 2009, 2012). Yet less is known about teacher development of FA skills on a continuum of practice. This empirical study designed, piloted, and examined test content validity of a performance-based assessment of teachers’ FA practice related to questioning “moves” in the context of six multilingual high needs middle school mathematics classrooms. Qualitative comparative analysis of triangulated evidence of teachers’ planning for, enacting, and reflecting on posing, pausing, and probing “moves” found differences among teachers’ probing in particular, related to their planning for probing and actions to foster student-to-student probing.
Carrie Holmberg and Brent Duckor. "Evaluating and Supporting Teacher Practice of Formative Assessment: Assessing Posing, Pausing, and Probing Moves" American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting (2018). doi:10.302/1315545