Isabella Mahan


In 1991, Albania shifted from severe communist rule to a regime claiming to be democratic. However, to this day, Albania maintains undemocratic elements. This paper analyzes the impact of hybrid state capacity in the context of state-led justice and the implications for citizen compliance. Albanian culture possesses a deep history of reliance on Kanun and traditional justice in conjunction with the state's inconsistency and unreliability. It further establishes the disconnect between people and the state. Despite attempts to progress towards modernity, traditions of blood feuds reemerged with the movement away from communism. The failure to properly transition from authoritarianism to democracy and establish a legitimate judicial system left citizens to pursue their own means of justice. Albania's case emphasizes the necessity of strong state institutions or else citizens are forced into destructive survival justice.