Style Guidelines for Secrecy and Society

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to Secrecy and Society.

A short video on Vimeo explains how to create an account and upload a copy of your paper. All submissions must be uploaded to the Secrecy and Society site through the Scholarworks platform.

Formatting Requirements

  • Chicago Manual of Style is the preferred style.
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • Do not include a separate title page.
  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers.
  • Margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1 inch, including your tables and figures.
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • Font:
    Main body:12 pt. Verdana typeface.
    Footnotes and endnotes, 10 pt. Verdana.
  • Begin the document with the title of the article and an abstract that includes keywords in alphabetical order.
  • Single space the abstract
  • Do not include underlines or links within the body of the text.
  • Doublespace the text.
  • If section headings are used, place them in bold, no italics
  • For online materials, include a live hyperlink or DOI (Digital Object Identifier) for the item in the References/Bibliography.
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (EPS).
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, and appendices, as a single file .doc or .docx file.
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.

Review Formatting

Reviews must conform to Chicago style and Verdana font type. Include the following information in the header of your document:

  • Citation information
  • Number of pages (if applicable)
  • Format (e.g., ebook, paper, hardback)
  • Price in US $
  • Your name, affiliation, and email

Chicago Manual of Style

The preferred style for citing is the Chicago Manual of Style, either Author-Date or Notes and Bibliography (NB) format. Information on Chicago style formats is found in the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide and Owl (Purdue Online Writing Lab).

References and Bibliography

It is the author's obligation to provide complete citations (e.g., author, corporate author, date, title, source, publisher) for all materials mentioned in a paper or review.

For online materials include a live URL/hyperlink for the item in the References and Notes-Bibliography. Per Chicago style, access dates are not included unless publication dates are unavailable

After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break, not a page break, and begin references on the same page. The references/bibliography should appear at the end of the document with margins that are both left and right- justified. You may choose not to right-justify the margin of one or more references if the spacing looks too awkward.

Additional Recommendations

Article Length

As this journal is in digital format, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy to let authors take advantage of this format to include material that they might otherwise need to cut. Authors should, however, exercise discretion with respect to length of their work.

Colored Text

Set the font color to black for the majority of the text.

We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, illustrations, and maps.

Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup).

Emphasized Text

Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Endnotes and Footnotes

Endnotes should appear appear at the end of the article in Arabic numerals, 10 pt. Verdana, single spaced.

Footnotes should appear in Arabic numerals at the bottom of the page in 10 pt. Verdana, single spaced.

Information on using footnotes and endnotes in Chicago style is found in the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide and Owl (Purdue Online Writing Lab).

Material cited in an endnote or/or footnote should adhere to Chicago style, with notes left and right-justified (e.g., flush with the right margin).

Foreign Terms

Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by the use of bold, no italics. Use the same font face and size for all headings. There should be space above and below headings.

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 spaces.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph). All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin—except where indented). Where possible, it should also be right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin). "Where possible" refers to the quality of the justification. For example, LaTeX and TeX do an excellent job of justifying text. Word does a reasonable job. But some word processors do a lousy job (e.g., they achieve right justification by inserting too much white space within and between words). We prefer flush right margins. However, it is better to have jagged right margins than to have flush right margins with awkward intra- and inter-word spacing. Make your decision on whichever looks best.

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style) exist as well.

Main text

The font for the main body of text must be black and in Verdana font size 12.


Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.

Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.

Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.

Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.

Tables and Figures

To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.


For inquiries, contact: Secrecy and Society.