Publication Date

Spring 2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)




Rebeca Burciaga


Counseling, Counselors, Education, MTMDSS, Multi Tiered System of Support, Tier 2 Support

Subject Areas

Education; Educational leadership


The national average student-to-counselor ratio is currently 477 students to one counselor; almost nearly double the 250:1 ratio that the ASCA National Model (2005) recommends. With the existing ratios as high as 1000 students per counselor, counselors and their respective counseling programs provide minimal impact (Carrell, S. E. & Carrell, S. A., 2006). In the Silicon Valley High School District (a pseudonym), high schools with high student-to-counselor ratios may result in subpopulations of students whose needs are not being served and or met. Although counselors express wanting to incorporate additional Tier Two interventions, counselor participants feel they do not have the bandwidth and or capacity to do so. This qualitative case study explores factors in a high school counselor’s role that contribute to their capacity to implement Tier Two interventions, how they determine what Tier Two groups to support, and how high school counseling programs implement and monitor Tier Two interventions in the Silicon Valley High School District. Findings indicate the counselors in the district offer an array of academic Tier Two interventions. However, the demands of the counseling role prevent other important Tier Two services from being provided.