Publication Date

Spring 2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)




Noni Reis


Bias, Culture, Discipline, Disparities, Equity, Stereotypes

Subject Areas

Social research; Cultural anthropology; Education policy


The disproportionate disciplining of Hispanic students has been a reoccurring issue that has persisted for decades. With the rising Hispanic populations nationwide and in the state of California, this issue must be addressed. Therefore, to contribute to the scholarship of this phenomenon, the author critically examined teacher and administrator perceptions and attitudes about students who embody a stereotypical urban street subculture. The purpose of this convergent parallel mixed-methods study was to examine the interplay of race, cultural capital, community, and communication, with the disproportionate disciplining of Hispanic students in schools where they are a minority population. The findings of this study expose many unconscious biases and internalized stereotypes that are not openly discussed, yet have a profound impact on a Hispanic student’s educational outcomes. Recommendations include teacher preparation programs that address unspoken biases, social-emotional and cultural competency training, and community outreach programs for the schools that were studied.