Publication Date

Summer 2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)




Noni Mendoza-Reis

Subject Areas

Educational leadership


With the booming Hispanic/Latinx populations nationwide, particularly in the state of California, the disproportionate disciplining of this student population for minor infractions such as defiance is an issue that has persisted for many decades. Therefore, to better inform this phenomenon, a historical perspective and critical look into the cultural awareness of teachers was examined throughout this research. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the relationship between middle school teacher cultural awareness and the disciplining of Hispanic/Latinx students in the schools being studied. The findings in this study reveal cultural perceptions from teachers that current body of research does not reflect, but have an overwhelming impact on a Hispanic/Latinx student’s educational and life outcomes. Recommendations include implementing culturally responsive pedagogy into class curriculums, cultural awareness professional development training, international student teaching, and critical consciousness and ethical caring training for teachers, district, and school leaders at all levels.