Publication Date

Spring 2017

Degree Type

Doctoral Project

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Linda Morgan

Second Advisor

Mary Ellen Wikosz

Third Advisor

Deepika Goyal


Preconception care, Prescribed opiods


The landmark 2015 report from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) posited that too many women of reproductive age received prescribed opioids. This is significant because fetal exposure to a known teratogen can have catastrophic outcomes. Furthermore, women are often ambivalent about birth control and many pregnancies are unplanned. Fortunately, women identify interactions with health care providers as acceptable cues for preconception decision making. Data has shown that Medicaid populations are disproportionately prescribed opioids compared to insured populations. However, the CDC defines reproductive status by age only. Therefore, the purpose of this research project was to identify women’s actual risk for pregnancy as defined by presence or absence of menopause, sterilization, or long-acting, reversible birth control (LARC).


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