Publication Date

Spring 2018

Degree Type

Doctoral Project

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Alice Butzlaff

Second Advisor

Patricia Ostrander

Third Advisor

Annette Dreith


Insulin pump, Type 1 diabetes, multiple daily insulin injections, comparative study


The population of patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (Type 1 or Type 2) has been increasing in the United States. Patients with type 1 diabetes may receive insulin through delivery via insulin pump therapy (IPT) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDII). In addition to requiring insulin, other management regimens have included frequent blood glucose monitoring, checking laboratory values hemoglobin A1c (A1C), maintaining normal body mass index (BMI), keeping a balanced diet, carbohydrate counting, and exercise. The purpose of the study was to compare the retrospective data of A1C and BMI of patients with type 1 diabetes after they transition from MDII to IPT.

An investigation was conducted retrospectively using a non-experimental chart review at an outpatient endocrinology department in Northern California. Electronic data collection technology was utilized to collect information about patient’s age, gender, BMI, and A1C. Data of the dependent variables, such as A1C, and BMI, were collected at baseline pre-IPT and 3, 6, and 12 months post-IPT.

Results indicated that the mean A1C decreased significantly from baseline to 3 months and 3-6 months post-IPT period. However, there was no difference in mean A1C from baseline to 12 months post-IPT. Mean BMI increased significantly from baseline to 3 months post-IPT. However, there was no difference in mean BMI from baseline to 3-6 months and baseline to 12 months post-IPT. This quality improvement research study supports that there was no significant decrease in either A1C or BMI after a patient transitions from MDII to IPT within the first 12 months.


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