Publication Date

Spring 2024

Degree Type

Master's Project

Degree Name

Master of Public Administration (MPA)


Urban and Regional Planning

First Advisor

James Brent


Bay Area Cities, Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, Action Plan


The ultimate goal of government is to serve the community for the greater good. Creating an inclusive and representative environment for those working in government and for the population they serve will improve many aspects of public service. In recent decades, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) have been increasingly prioritized as America has become increasingly diverse. However, this effort intensified in 2020 after the murder of George Floyd and the subsequent Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests. “Three years after Floyd's death and the movement hit the streets, 74% of Black executives said they saw positive change in hiring, retention, and promotion of Black employees... 88% said their companies made a commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) strategies after Floyd's murder” (Tilo, 2023, para. 3 & 5). Despite considerable efforts to implement DEI frameworks into government policy and action, research examining the efforts made by local governments is noticeably absent. This project will attempt to provide perspective on what steps that Bay Area municipalities are beginning to execute in response to the recent public outcry for more representative and responsive governments. Additionally, this research will provide insight highlighting the backlash and difficulties associated with implementing DEI policies and programs.