Publication Date


Degree Type

Master's Project

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Sharon Wahl


In response to the Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA) mandate "to ensure that a resident who is incontinent of bladder receives the appropriate treatment and services to restore normal bladder functioning ... " (Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 1989, p.5333), several studies were designed and implemented to demonstrate that incontinence interventions worked. The research also showed that staff behaviors did not change and toileting programs were not carried forward once studies were completed. What was missing from the research was any mention that certified nursing assistants (CNAs) were asked to participate in the planning phase of an incontinence program. The purpose of this study was to ask CNA what they thought comprised a doable toileting program and how they could incorporate the changes necessary into their schedules to accommodate the amount of work toileting programs entail.

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