This paper proposes a framework for controlling grid frequency by engaging the generation-side and demand-side resources simultaneously, via a fast transactive control approach. First, we use a proportional frequency-price relation to build and analyze a transactive frequency droop controller for a single-area power grid. Then, we develop a transactive demand response system by incorporating a large population of thermostatically controlled air conditioning loads. A proportional-integral controller is used to adjust the setpoint temperature of the air conditioners based on price variations. A battery storage system is then developed and augmented to the system to capture the energy arbitrage effects. A nonlinear price-responsive battery management system is developed to enable effective charging and discharging operations within the battery’s state-of-charge and power constraints. Simulation results indicate that the proposed transactive control system improves the steady-state and transient response of the grid to sudden perturbations in the supply and demand equilibrium. To decouple frequency from price during daily operation and maintain frequency near the nominal value, we propose adding a feedforward price broadcast signal to the control loop based on the net demand measurement. Through various simulations, we conclude that a combination of feedback transactive controller with feedforward price broadcast scheme provides an effective solution for the simultaneous generation-side and demand-side energy management and frequency control in smart power grids.
Demand-side energy management, Energy storage, Load frequency control, Smart grid, Thermostatically controlled loads, Transactive control
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Andrew Ly and Saeid Bashash. "Fast transactive control for frequency regulation in smart grids with demand response and energy storage" Energies (2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184771