Publication Date


Document Type


Publication Title

AIP Advances








The internal fields in single crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) have been previously studied through muon-spin rotation (μSR). By Maximum-Entropy (ME) μSR, we analyze Fe3O4 μSR data with external fields parallel to the <111>, <110> or <100> axis. The ME peak-to-noise ratio is optimized by varying the filter time and time interval. Several μSR time series indicate a beat pattern. Using MEμSR, a second frequency signal is seen at non-zero fields in the temperature range above the Verwey transition (TV = ∼123 K). At zero field, MEμSR confirms with much-improved precision the existence of one frequency signal found earlier by curve fitting (CF) and Fourier transformation (FT). We compare our room temperature (RT) field-dependent MEμSR transforms for <110> Fe3O4 with those found at 205 K to study a second order phase transition at the Wigner temperature (TW = ∼247 K). At RT and 205 K for fields below the demagnetization field and parallel to <110> Fe3O4, a second MEμSR frequency is observed, missed by CF and FT. These extra magnetic fields fall on the extended magnetization curves below and above TW. At RT, a small field induces a short-range order similar to the precursor effects in the TV-TW interval. At 205 K within that precursor T-interval, we observe a comparable RT-disordered state. The existence of these additional internal fields is likely related to phonon-assisted 3d-electron(-spin) hopping and short-range order behaviors. Our MEμSR studies lead to a better understanding of the local magnetism in this Mott-Wigner glass.

Funding Sponsor

U.S. Department of Energy


This is the Version of Record and can also be read online here.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Physics and Astronomy