The Application of Double Elastic Band Exercise in the 90/90 Arm Position for Overhead Athletes

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Sports Health







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Background: Traditional exercises performed with the shoulder in the position of 90° abduction and external rotation with elbow flexion (90/90) while using a single elastic band showed moderate activity of both the lower trapezius (LT) and infraspinatus (IS) muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate activity of the teres minor (TMi) and the LT muscles during standing external rotation exercise with the shoulder in the 90/90 position with 2 elastic bands in both the frontal and the scapular plane. Hypothesis: TMi, IS, and LT muscle activities will vary depending on whether the shoulder is positioned in the frontal or scapular plane with the application of 2 elastic bands. Also, the serratus anterior (SA) and teres major (TMa) muscles will produce different muscular activity patterns during exercises performed with 2 elastic bands in the frontal plane compared with the TMi and LT muscles. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A total of 21 collegiate baseball players volunteered to participate. The electromyography (EMG) activities of the TMi, IS, LT, SA, TMa, middle deltoid (MD), posterior deltoid, and upper trapezius (UT) muscles were measured with the 90/90 arm position during both isometric and oscillation resistance exercises with 2 elastic bands oriented in the frontal and scapular planes. Results: A significant difference was observed in EMG activity of both the TMi and the LT muscles between single and double elastic band applications in the frontal plane (P < 0.05). In contrast, EMG activity of the IS, SA, and TMa muscles was significantly increased in the scapular plane compared with the frontal plane (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The standing 90/90 position effectively increased both TMi and LT muscle EMG activity with the double elastic band in the frontal plane while minimizing UT and MD muscle activity. EMG activity of the IS, SA, and TMa muscles increased with exercise in the scapular plane as compared with the frontal plane. Clinical Relevance: Oscillation movement under double elastic band application differentiated external rotator muscle and scapular muscle activities between the frontal and scapular plane during the 90/90 exercise in the frontal plane compared with the scapular plane. Clinicians can utilize each of the scapular and frontal positions based on their desired focus for muscular activation.


elastic resistance exercise, electromyography, lower trapezius, overhead athletes, teres minor