Studying surfactant effects on hydrate crystallization at oil-water interfaces using a low-cost integrated modular peltier device
Journal of Visualized Experiments
We introduce an approach to study the formation and growth of hydrates under the influence of nonionic surfactants. The experimental system includes a temperature regulator, visualization techniques, and inner pressure measurements. The temperature control system contains a low-cost, programmable temperature regulator made with solid-state Peltier components. Along with the temperature control system, we incorporated visualization techniques and internal pressure measurements to study hydrate formation and inhibition in the presence of nonionic surfactants. We studied the hydrate-inhibiting ability of nonionic surfactants (sorbitane monolaurate, sorbitane monooleate, PEG-PPG-PEG, and polyoxyethylenesorbitan tristearate) at low (i.e., 0.1 CMC), medium (i.e., CMC), and high (i.e., 10 CMC) concentrations. Two types of crystals were formed: planar and conical. Planar crystals were formed in plain water and low surfactant concentrations. Conical crystals were formed in high surfactant concentrations. The results of the study show that conical crystals are the most effective in terms of hydrate inhibition. Because conical crystals cannot grow past a certain size, the hydrate growth rate as a conical crystal is slower than the hydrate growth rate as planar crystal. Hence, surfactants that force hydrates to form conical crystals are the most efficient. The goal of the protocol is to provide a detailed description of an experimental system that is capable of investigating the cyclopentane hydrate crystallization process on the surface of a water droplet in the presence of surfactant molecules.
ACS - PFR
American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund
Chemistry, Crystallization, Cyclopentane, Hydrate, Issue 157, Morphology, Rheology, Surfactant, Temperature control system
Chemical and Materials Engineering
Hoi Yan Ko, Kevin Dann, and Liat Rosenfeld. "Studying surfactant effects on hydrate crystallization at oil-water interfaces using a low-cost integrated modular peltier device" Journal of Visualized Experiments (2020). https://doi.org/10.3791/60391