Alternatives for scheduling departures for efficient surface metering in ATD-2: Exploration in a human-in-the-loop simulation

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Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Title

Advances in Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, and Performance: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, and Performance, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA


Ronald L. Boring



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A Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation was conducted to explore the impacts of various surface metering goals on operations and Ramp Controllers at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT). Three conditions were compared: (1) Baseline, with no surface metering, (2) instructions to meet advisory times at the gate only, and (3) instructions to meet advisory times at the gate as well as the times at the scheduled taxiway spot, where aircraft are delivered to Air Traffic Control (ATC). Results showed increased compliance for taxiway spot times when compliance was first met for gate advisories. Instructing Ramp Controllers to meet advisory times at the gate improves spot time compliance and therefore surface scheduling predictability at CLT. Results also demonstrated there was increased compliance overall with gate and spot times in the second condition. This was likely due to higher Ramp Controller workload in the third condition.


Airport surface scheduling, ATD-2, HITL simulation, Human factors assessment in field operations, Integrated Arrival, Departure, and Surface (IADS) traffic management, Surface metering


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