Publication Date


Document Type


Publication Title

Physical Review E








We present a numerical formulation for the solution of nonisothermal, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with thermal fluctuations to describe mesoscale transport phenomena in multispecies fluid mixtures. The novelty of our numerical method is the use of staggered grid momenta along with a finite volume discretization of the thermodynamic variables to solve the resulting stochastic partial differential equations. The key advantages of the numerical scheme are that it significantly simplifies the discretization of diffusive and stochastic momentum fluxes into a more compact form, and it provides an unambiguous prescription of boundary conditions involving pressure. The staggered grid scheme more accurately reproduces the equilibrium static structure factor of hydrodynamic fluctuations in gas mixtures compared to a collocated scheme described previously by Balakrishnan et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 013017 (2014)1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.013017]. The numerical method is tested for ideal noble gases mixtures under various nonequilibrium conditions, such as applied thermal and concentration gradients, to assess the role of cross-diffusion effects, such as Soret and Dufour, on the long-ranged correlations of hydrodynamic fluctuations, which are also more accurately reproduced compared to the collocated scheme. We numerically study giant nonequilibrium fluctuations driven by concentration gradients and fluctuation-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability in gas mixtures. Wherever applicable, excellent agreement is observed with theory and measurements from the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

U.S. Department of Energy


This article originally appeared in Physical Review E, volume 107, issue 1, 2023, published by the American Physical Society. ©2023 American Physical Society. The article can also be found online at this link.


Physics and Astronomy