The roles of dispersal limitation, climatic niches and glacial history in endemism of the North American bryophyte flora
American Journal of Botany
Premise: Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) tend to have very large geographic ranges, which impedes progress toward understanding the drivers of diversification and extinction. This study aimed to investigate whether North American endemics differ geographically from more widespread species and whether differences in climatic niche or traits related to dispersal and establishment differ between endemics and more widespread species. Methods: All available herbarium records of bryophytes from North America north of Mexico (106 collections) were used. Traits related to dispersal were obtained from the literature. Analyses tested whether range sizes and extents differed between endemics and nonendemics, and whether trait differences were associated with endemism. Climate data were used to determine whether differences in niche breadth are present between endemics and nonendemics, and whether suitable climate for endemics occurs outside North America. Results: Nonendemics have range sizes twice as large as endemics and they occur farther north and have greater longitudinal extents. However, they do not have the widest niche breadths and do not differ in spore size (with few exceptions) or sexual condition. Asexual propagules are more prevalent among nonendemics. Climatic models indicate that substantial areas of climate suitable for endemics exist outside of North America. Conclusions: Distributions of endemics and nonendemics are consistent with an important role of glaciation in shaping the North American bryophyte flora. Endemics are not limited to the continent based on a lack of suitable climate elsewhere or by spore size or sexual condition.
biogeography, bryophyte, dispersal, endemism, glaciation, niche modeling, North America
Benjamin E. Carter. "The roles of dispersal limitation, climatic niches and glacial history in endemism of the North American bryophyte flora" American Journal of Botany (2021): 1555-1567. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1721