The human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for most cervical cancer cases worldwide. This gynecological carcinoma causes many deaths, even though it can be treated by removing malignant tissues at a preliminary stage. In many developing countries, patients do not undertake medical examinations due to the lack of awareness, hospital resources and high testing costs. Hence, it is vital to design a computer aided diagnostic method which can screen cervical cancer patients. In this research, we predict the probability risk of contracting this deadly disease using a custom stacked ensemble machine learning approach. The technique combines the results of several machine learning algorithms on multiple levels to produce reliable predictions. In the beginning, a deep exploratory analysis is conducted using univariate and multivariate statistics. Later, the one-way ANOVA, mutual information and Pearson’s correlation techniques are utilized for feature selection. Since the data was imbalanced, the Borderline-SMOTE technique was used to balance the data. The final stacked machine learning model obtained an accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, area under curve (AUC) and average precision of 98%, 97%, 99%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively. To make the model explainable and interpretable to clinicians, explainable artificial intelligence algorithms such as Shapley additive values (SHAP), local interpretable model agnostic explanation (LIME), random forest and ELI5 have been effectively utilized. The optimistic results indicate the potential of automated frameworks to assist doctors and medical professionals in diagnosing and screening potential cervical cancer patients.
Manipal Academy of Higher Education
ANOVA, cervical cancer, diagnosis, Explainable Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, stacking
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Krishnaraj Chadaga, Srikanth Prabhu, Niranjana Sampathila, Rajagopala Chadaga, S. Swathi, and Saptarshi Sengupta. "Predicting cervical cancer biopsy results using demographic and epidemiological parameters: a custom stacked ensemble machine learning approach" Cogent Engineering (2022). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2022.2143040