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IEEE Access





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Background: Semi-autonomous vehicles still require human drivers to take over when the automated systems can no longer perform the driving task. Objective: The goal of this study was to design and test the effects of six meaningful tactile signal types, representing six driving scenarios (i.e., navigation, speed, surrounding vehicles, over the speed limit, headway reductions, and pedestrian status) respectively, and two pattern durations (lower and higher urgencies), on drivers' perception and performance during automated driving. Methods: Sixteen volunteers participated in an experiment utilizing a medium-fidelity driving simulator presenting vibrotactile signals via 20 tactors embedded in the seat back, pan, and belt. Participants completed four separate driving sessions with 30 tactile signals presented randomly throughout each drive. Reaction times (RT), interpretation accuracy, and subjective ratings were measured. Results: Results illustrated shorter RTs and higher intuitive ratings for higher urgency patterns than lower urgency patterns. Pedestrian status and headway reduction signals were associated with shorter RTs and increased confidence ratings, compared to other tactile signal types. Lastly, among six tactile signals, surrounding vehicle and navigation signal types had the highest interpretation accuracy. Conclusion: These results will be used as preliminary data for future studies that aim to investigate the effects of meaningful tactile displays on automated vehicle takeover performance in complex situations (e.g., urban areas) where actual takeovers are required. The findings of this study will inform the design of next-generation in-vehicle human-machine interfaces.


automated driving, Human-machine interface, tactile displays, takeover request

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Industrial and Systems Engineering