Publication Date


Document Type


Publication Title

Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives






Transportation plays a key role in combating human trafficking and California is monumental in understanding this role. This paper presents one element of research undertaken for United States Department of Transportation for understanding the role of transportation in combating human trafficking in California through a survey of multi-disciplinary anti-trafficking practitioners followed by a semi-structured interview. This paper focuses on forced labor and supply chain management. It presents general knowledge on forced labor issues in California and globally, the intersection with transportation, efforts to combat forced labor in the supply chains, and experts’ suggestions on how to address forced labor. The study also supplements expert input with labor violation and transportation accessibility analysis. Experts state that in order the combat forced labor the underlying reason for forced labor, which is economic incentives, should be understood first for a shift to demand reduction. Experts urge for pricing studies, mapping and technology to understand the vulnerabilities, hot spots, legal operating price and detect anomalies in the supply chain. Second, experts suggest awareness and responsibility of all levels for achieving transparency in supply chains. Reexamination of California Transparency in Supply Chains Act and enforcement of other policies was also commonly suggested. Monitors, public private partnership and technology was recommended for ensuring sustainability of the efforts and capacity management. Labor violation and transit accessibility analysis supports the expert input for focusing on farm workers and garment industry and potential transportation accessibility solutions to address some of the vulnerabilities.

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

U.S. Department of Transportation


California, Forced labor, Supply chain, Transparency, Transportation

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Marketing and Business Analytics