Publication Date


Document Type


Publication Title

BMC Nutrition








Background: Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) is primarily from the diet through canned foods. Characterizing dietary exposures can be conducted through biomonitoring and dietary surveys; however, these methods can be time-consuming and challenging to implement. Methods: We developed a novel dietary exposure risk questionnaire to evaluate BPA exposure and compared these results to 24-hr dietary recall data from participants (n = 404) of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) study, a dietary clinical trial, to validate questionnaire responses. High BPA exposure foods were identified from the dietary recalls and used to estimate BPA exposure. Linear regression models estimated the association between exposure to BPA and questionnaire responses. A composite risk score was developed to summarize questionnaire responses. Results: In questionnaire data, 65% of participants ate canned food every week. A composite exposure score validated that the dietary exposure risk questionnaire captured increasing BPA exposure. In the linear regression models, utilizing questionnaire responses vs. 24-hr dietary recall data, participants eating canned foods 1–2 times/week (vs. never) consumed 0.78 more servings (p < 0.001) of high BPA exposure foods, and those eating canned foods 3+ times/week (vs. never) consumed 0.89 more servings (p = 0.013) of high BPA exposure foods. Participants eating 3+ packaged items/day (vs. never) consumed 62.65 more total grams of high BPA exposure food (p = 0.036). Conclusions: Dietary exposure risk questionnaires may provide an efficient alternative approach to 24-hour dietary recalls to quantify dietary BPA exposure with low participant burden. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered at as NCT01826591 on April 8, 2013.

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


Bisphenol A, Diet, Environmental phenols, Exposure, Food packaging, Questionnaire, Risk

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Public Health and Recreation