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Composites Communications






The most common additive manufacturing technique fused filament fabrication (FFF) suffers from inter-bead porosity that reduces mechanical properties. Inter-bead pores follow the raster angle, which causes anisotropic mechanical properties. Yet, the effects of raster angle on the mechanical behavior of short-carbon-fiber-reinforced (SCFR) thermoplastics are unclear. In this study, we performed tensile, flexural, and fracture toughness tests on SCFR acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Raster angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° were investigated. Tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased by 22–35% for a change from 0° to 15°. Flexural strength and modulus were less sensitive to raster angle. Flexural strengths were at least 50% more than tensile strength for the same raster angle. Whereas flexural modulus is at least 15% less than elastic modulus. Fracture toughness showed a non-linear relationship with the raster angle. Maximum fracture toughness was observed at 0° and 60° rasters. Crack deflection was observed as the toughening mechanism.

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San José State University


Additive manufacturing, Fiber reinforcement, Flexural strength, Fracture toughness, Polymer composites, Raster angle, Tensile strength

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Chemical and Materials Engineering