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The Urban Review




This study uses critical race quantitative intersectionality to examine the impacts of gender and dis/ability type on Black students’ school discipline outcomes. We use multilevel logistic regression models to analyze data from a large urban school district, considering the intersectional impact of gender and dis/ability type on school discipline outcomes among Black students (suspension, restorative justice, referral to law enforcement). We found that Black students identified as male, labeled with emotional dis/abilities, or identified as having ADHD were more likely to experience school discipline consequences than those who were not. These findings suggest that gender and dis/ability status are significant correlates of discipline outcomes, indicating that a general focus on race or special education masks important differences in discipline disparities.


Critical quantitative methods, Gender, Intersectionality, Race, School discipline


This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:


Social Work

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