Effects of Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Programs on Attitudes and Behaviors Among American College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Adolescent Health
The US Campus Sexual Assault Violence Elimination (SaVE) Act of 2013 mandates that all higher education institutions receiving federal funds offer incoming students primary prevention and awareness programming addressing sexual violence. Yet, there is no thorough and up-to-date quantitative synthesis of the effects of campus sexual assault prevention programs on sexual assault attitudes/knowledge and behaviors. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of experimental and high-quality quasi-experimental research examining effects of college sexual assault prevention programs on sexual assault attitudes and behaviors. Our synthesis of 385 effect sizes from 80 eligible studies disseminated between 1991 and 2021 indicates campus sexual assault programs have a more pronounced effect on attitudes/knowledge than on violence. Effects on sexual assault victimization were significant but small (g = 0.15) and effects on sexual assault perpetration were nonsignificant. Moderator analyses indicate programs that use a risk reduction framework are associated with less favorable outcomes than programs that do not use a risk reduction framework. Considering the limited effect of campus sexual assault prevention programs on violence, we recommend programming efforts move beyond a focus on individuals and, instead, adopt an ecological perspective targeting individuals, social relationships, community factors, and societal factors.
U.S. Department of Justice
College, Meta-analysis, Prevention, Sexual assault, Sexual violence
Child and Adolescent Development
Heather Hensman Kettrey, Martie P. Thompson, Robert A. Marx, and Alyssa J. Davis. "Effects of Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Programs on Attitudes and Behaviors Among American College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Adolescent Health (2023): 831-844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2023.02.022