Journal of water and health
With looming global water-related issues, the monitoring of water quality for household and industrial consumption has become more pertinent. Rivers in nearby towns serve as primary water sources for Ekpoma town. 123 samples of stored river water were collected from 41 sampling locations and physical properties - pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, temperature, and total dissolved solids (TDS) - were measured in situ using the Hanna edge® Multiparameter EC/TDS/Salinity Meter-HI2030. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used to detect and measure the concentration of potentially toxic metals (PTMs): Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The measured concentrations were compared to the WHO, US EPA, and NSDWQ regulatory standards, and a spatiotemporal health risk analysis was performed using HERisk software. Twenty-five percent of the tested samples contained PTM concentrations within the allowable regulatory limits. Spatiotemporal health risk analysis showed that 98.8% of the cumulative carcinogenic risks (CRcum) were entirely from Pb contamination via oral ingestion. PTM concentrations in the samples suggest the degradation of river water quality due to agricultural activities, crude oil exploration activities, and soil composition in the region. Best management practices (BMPs) and treatment processes for the removal of detected contaminants are recommended to improve water quality.
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Imokhai T. Tenebe, Eunice O. Babatunde, Jordan B. Neris, Cephas Mikano, Obiora B. Ezeudu, Onome C. Edo, Omowunmi H. Fred-Ahmadu, Chibuike D. Chukwuka, and Nsikak U. Benson. "Reliability of stored river water as an alternative for consumption in Ekpoma, Nigeria: a human health risk assessment" Journal of water and health (2023): 571-585. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2023.276