Sachet water (SW) is a major source of drinking in most Nigerian homes, thus making it a possible conveyance medium for health risks due to contamination if persist rather than for replenishment of the body. This study collected SW from three busy neighborhoods in South-West Nigeria and investigated for the presence of indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli (E. coli), Total Coliform (TC), Total Heterophilic Bacteria (THB), Staphylococcus (Staph)) and some physio-chemical parameters (total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and salinity). Multi-variable and exploratory statistical methods were applied to the results to determine correlations between bacterial contamination levels and perceived brand reputation. Bacteriological tests with raw SW samples appeared too numerous to count (TNC) and thus required serial dilutions. After seven-fold serial dilutions, results obtained revealed that SW brands with good reputations had no TC and E. coli and was statistically significant with groupings of other SW brands (χ2 = 12.28; p < 0.05 and χ2 = 37.96; p < 0.05). Additionally, SW brands with poor reputations had mean values of TC ((Formula presented.) ; (Formula presented.)) and E. coli ((Formula presented.) ; (Formula presented.)) exceeding the threshold value of zero set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Only one sample from a poor reputation brand tested positive for Staphylococcus and was not statistically significant (χ2 = 5.2191; p = 0.074). Principal Component Analysis (PCA)/Factor Analysis (FA) revealed that most of the SW had fecal contamination was the major source. Therefore, this study suggests that periodic cleaning of distribution lines, location-specific treatment, and other quality control (QC) measures should be enforced to reduce water security risk for SW consumption in the region.
bacteriological quality, drinking water, public health, sachet water, water quality
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Imokhai T. Tenebe, Eunice O. Babatunde, Chinonso C. Eddy-Ugorji, Egbe Etu E. Etu, Nkpa M. Ogarekpe, Chikodinaka V. Ekeanyanwu, Oladapo A. Diekola, Oluwarotimi S. Oladele, and Obiora B. Ezeudu. "Bacterial Contamination Levels and Brand Perception of Sachet Water: A Case Study in Some Nigerian Urban Neighborhoods" Water (2023). https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091762