Disordered sleep promotes inflammation in brain and peripheral tissues, but the mechanisms that regulate these responses are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) from sleep loss elevates blood pressure to promote vascular sheer stress leading to inflammation. As catecholamines produced from SNS activation can directly regulate inflammation, we pharmacologically altered blood pressure using an alternative approach-manipulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Male C57BL6/J mice were treated with angiotensin or captopril to elevate and reduce blood pressure, respectively and then exposed to 24-h of sleep fragmentation (SF) or allowed to sleep (control). Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and as endothelial adhesion gene expression as well as serum glucocorticoids (corticosterone) were measured. RAS manipulation elevated cytokines and endothelial adhesion expression in heart and aorta while SF increased cytokine expression in peripheral tissues, but not brain. However, there were interactive effects of angiotensin-II and SF upon cytokine gene expression in hippocampus and hypothalamus, but not prefrontal cortex. SF, but not RAS manipulation, elevated serum corticosterone concentration. These findings highlight the contrasting effects of RAS manipulation and SF, implying that inflammation from SF is acting on different pathways that are largely independent of RAS manipulation.
National Institutes of Health
David C. Ensminger, Nicholas D. Wheeler, Reem Al Makki, Kristen N. Eads, and Noah T. Ashley. "Contrasting effects of sleep fragmentation and angiotensin-II treatment upon pro-inflammatory responses of mice" Scientific reports (2022): 14763. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-19166-9