Exploring How to Model Formative Assessment Trajectories of Posing‐Pausing‐Probing Practices: Toward a Teacher Learning Progressions Framework for the Study of Novice Teachers

Publication Date

September 2019

Document Type


Publication Title

Journal of Educational Measurement




A robust body of evidence supports the finding that particular teaching and assessment strategies in the K‐12 classroom can improve student achievement. While experts have identified many effective teaching and learning practices in the assessment for learning literature, teachers’ knowledge and use of “high leverage” formative assessment (FA) practices are difficult to model in novice populations. By employing advances in construct modeling, the theoretical underpinnings of learning progressions research, and four principles of evidence‐centered design, teacher educators along with psychometricians can test hypotheses about teacher learning progressions. Utilizing an FA moves‐based framework, the article examines how beginning teachers’ posing, pausing, and probing practices align with five key strategies of FA. Examples of construct maps, instructional tasks, and turns of talk analysis using scoring guides are provided from an empirical study of novice science preservice teachers in a high‐needs school district.