Because Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) R&D is performed for the ultimate deployment in the real world, deployment issues may limit design options for ITS concepts and technologies and, hence, can be viewed as constraints on ITS R&D. Therefore, ITS deployment issues must be studied at the outset of the R&D process. This paper develops a framework to help recognize and organize such issues. The findings can be used by ITS researchers in developing deployable ITS concepts and technologies and by ITS promoters in deploying ITS technologies having been developed already. Based on a focus on decisions impacting the deployment of ITS user services, we attempt to "derive" such a framework. Faced with many transportation needs, solutions are sought; with the recent advances in information, communication, sensor, control, computer and other technologies, many opportunities for improving current surface transportation systems exist. The fact that a multitude of decisions are required for selecting, developing and implementing proper ITS user services as solutions to serve properly selected transportation needs necessitates a focus on decision. Under the assumption that no single organization has the full authority over and the full capability of taking all the actions required for the successful deployment of an ITS user service, we postulate that only the role of a champion can be expected from any organization promoting ITS deployment. Based on the understanding of the relevant decision-making processes, the champion seeks to maximize the probability of successful deployment, in the presence of possible exogenous variables/events, by influencing relevant decision makers through, e.g., good designs, incentives, pressure, etc. Gradual interaction among the decision makers and cautious introduction of changes by the decision makers necessitate incremental deployment. A variety of uncertainties exist in many different aspects of ITS deployment, and this makes risk management a must. The presence of multiple user services and multiple implementation locations necessitates search for synergy in deployment of different user services in different locations, for risk mitigation and other purposes. The resulting eight dimensions of ITS deployment issues are: need/opportunity, solution, decision maker/organization, decision making, decision influencing, time, risk management, and synergy. Key Words: ITS, Deployment, Issues, Framework, Decision Making
H.-S. Jacob Tsao. "A Decision-Oriented Framework for Evaluating Deployment Strategies for Intelligent Transportation Systems" PATH Research Report (1999).