This paper evaluates the entrance capacity and queueing delay for Automated Highway Systems through use of simulations and analytical modeling. Queueing statistics are also used to determine the sustainable capacity of alternative concepts, taking trip length distribution and spacing between ramps into consideration. Based on safety-spacing headways (produced in a separate analysis), the most promising concept utilizes platoons both on the highway and on on-ramps. However, it is unclear whether comparable capacity can be achieved on exit, when vehicles must be decoupled from their platoons, and whether it is safe for vehicles to enter the highway in closely spaced platoons. The analytical evaluation indicates that entrance/exit spacing on the order of one per 2 km or closer would be required to support highways with total capacity on the order of 20,000 vehicles per hour. Most likely, this would be achieved most efficiently if separate dedicated entrances are provided for automated vehicles, to minimize weaving on manual lanes.
Randolph W. Hall, Ali Nowroozi, and Jacob Tsao. "Entrance Capacity of an Automated Highway System" Transportation Science (2001): 19-36.