Highway automation and its evolution involve a multitude of systems issues. Particularly important and difficult in defining a deployment sequence is the very first step, i.e. the first user service involving fully automated freeway driving. However, this importance and the difficulty imply that many factors may severely constrain the initial deployment. After discussing the paramount importance of initial AHS deployment, this paper points out major high-level issues and constraints. Any realistic deployment strategy must take into consideration gradual technology maturation, introduction of new driver role and diminishing conventional driver role for automated driving, high cost of early-generation automation-equipped vehicles, gradual infrastructure modification, gradual commitment of automakers to manufacture and service automation-equipped vehicles, gradual commitment of insurance industry to carry liability, and gradual acceptance by the interest groups and the general public. This paper then proposes a freeway shuttle van service for AHS debut. This user service could be a good candidate for the 1997 AHS demonstration required by ISTEA and has a good chance of leading to a successful long-term AHS deployment supported by the general public.
Jacob Tsao. "Constraints on Initial AHS Deployment and the Concept Definition of a Shuttle Service for AHS Debut" Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Journal (IVHS Journal) (1994): 159-173.