In recent years, innovative mobility and shifts in travel and consumption behavior are changing how people access and use the curb. Shared mobility—the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, scooter, or other mode—coupled with outdoor dining, curbside pick-up, and robotic delivery are creating new needs related to the planning, management, and enforcement of curb access. This study examines curb planning and management from several angles, such as safety, social equity, and multimodal connections. This research employs a multi-method approach to identify the changing needs for curb space management and how to meet these needs through new planning and implementation policies and strategies. As part of this study, the authors conducted 23 interviews. Respondents were chosen to represent public, private, and non-profit sector perspectives. Additionally, the authors employed a survey of 1,033 curb users and 241 taxi, transportation network company (TNC), and public transportation drivers. The study finds that changes in mode choice and curbside use can result in a variety of impacts on access, social equity, congestion, device management, pick-up and drop-off, and goods delivery, to name a few. The curb also has the potential to be disrupted by emerging modes, such as robotic delivery vehicles (also known as personal delivery devices) and automated vehicles. As these emerging developments continue to impact the curb, it is becoming increasingly important for policymakers to have an appropriate framework for planning and managing curb space in urban areas.

Publication Date


Publication Type



Active Transportation, Transportation Technology, Planning and Policy, Transportation Technology

Digital Object Identifier


MTI Project



Shared mobility, Curb space management, Shared micromobility, Last-mile delivery, Outdoor dining, Automated vehicles


Construction Engineering and Management | Transportation | Transportation Engineering