Document Type


Publication Date

January 2005

Publication Title

Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association

First Page


Last Page



chronicle, global. evolution, product warranty


Business | Other Business


This article provides a chronological account of the evolution of the concept of product warranty and its development over the four millennia to its present state at the dawn of twenty-first century A.D. This study examines how the concept of product warranty originated and illustrates how this concept was an integral element of accepted business practices in commerce and trade over the ages in almost all civilizations spanning the entire globe. The civilizations include the Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations of twenty-first century B.C., the Roman era of the fifth century B.C., Bavarian rule at the start of the Christian era, earlier Jewish period of the second century A.D., Hindu period of the fifth, Islamic era of the eighth, Russian period of the early tenth, church rule of the medieval times, customs of the English borough, and ultimately the post-industrial era of consumerism and today's times of warranty legislation.


© 2005 Arvinder Loomba. The article was originally published in the Journal of the Japan Industrial Management Association.