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Korean Journal of International Studies


This article analyzes the effects of international connections on India’s nuclear program; specifically, the use of international norms and resources by domestic actors to influence the Indian nuclear enclave. These actors are from the Indian executive (pressure from above) as well as civil society (pressure from below). India’s self-presentation as a responsible state necessitates compliance with international norms, and concomitant restraints on the nuclear estate from ‘above.’ Environmentalists, local residents, and their transnational allies seek to make the nuclear complex more accountable, responsive, and transparent by using social media, civil society institutions, and cross-border links. The Indian case suggests that while studying the effects of international connections, analysts should open up the ‘black box’ of the state. Moreover, analysts must take into account that international connections can be resources for, and not merely restraints on, domestic actors. © 2013 The Korean Journal of International Studies.


This article was originally published in the Korean Journal of International Studies, volume 11, issue 2, 2013, and is available at this link. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License