Publication Date

Spring 2013

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Clifton M. Oyamot


Adolescent, Alcohol, Athlete, Perceived Norms, Psychology, Sports

Subject Areas

Psychology; Social psychology; Developmental psychology


Alcohol use among adolescents results in a greater risk of lifetime alcohol abuse and dependence. Some research suggests that perceived peer norms about drinking are the strongest predicting factor of alcohol–related behaviors (ARBs) among adolescents. Previous research on whether sports participation is related to adolescent alcohol consumption has resulted in mixed findings. For this study, perceived norms were further delineated between descriptive and injunctive norms. The goal of this research was to determine whether there were differences between sport types (team vs. individual) in alcohol consumption patterns and whether sport type moderated the predictive strength of perceived norms on alcohol consumption patterns. Participants included 364 male and female athletes 14–18 years old, from schools and sports clubs in California, separated by participation in either individual or team sports. Participants completed the following measures: Athletic Identification Measurement Scale–Plus (AIMS–Plus), Sport Participation, Modified Student Alcohol Questionnaire (MSAQ), and Modified Form of Cahalan’s Drinking Questionnaire and Perceived Norms (MCDQ–PN). The results of the study confirmed that perceived norms were correlated with alcohol consumption patterns. Although team athletes had stronger injunctive norms about drinking than did individual athletes, there was not a significant difference between sport type and alcohol consumption patterns, nor did sport type moderate the relationship between perceived norms and ARBs. Implications of these findings are discussed.