Publication Date

Fall 2015

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Sociology and Interdisciplinary Social Sciences


Yoko Baba


gay, gender, Hegemonic masculinity, homophobia, lesbian, sport

Subject Areas



The purpose of this study was to examine how sport and lesbian-gay-bisexual resistance intersect with economy, media, religion, politics, education, and race and whether those institutions reinforce the hegemonic masculinity gender construction embedded in sport. Through a review of literature, I explore whether the aforementioned institutions are incorporating sociologist Eric Anderson’s inclusive masculinity or whether they are stuck in the hegemonic form mainly in the core team sport of basketball, baseball, football and hockey. Also, I investigate if Allport’s contact hypothesis has played any role in the movement from hegemonic masculinity to inclusive masculinity. Religion, education, and economy all seem to be embracing the inclusive form of masculinity, while sport, in general, may be experiencing a slight backlash after three active gay athletes came out in core team sport in 2014.