Publication Date

Fall 2018

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Electrical Engineering


Mohamed O. Badawy


Battery Management, DC-DC Converter, Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Energy-Storage System, Maximum Torque per Ampere Operation, Modular Multi-level Converter

Subject Areas

Electrical engineering; Automotive engineering; Energy


Electric vehicles (EVs) are substantial applications of clean energy. Their effectiveness for mainstream transportation is predicated on the efficient use of stored energy within the vehicles’ power pack. Among rechargeable storage solutions, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cells have high energy density making them suitable to supply the EVs’ average power. However, the peak power requirements of the vehicles exert stress on the Li-ion cells due to their low pulsating power capabilities. Ultracapacitors can be used instead as the power-pulsating storage elements given their superior power density. Incorporating the two cell types for energy storage signifies a hybrid configuration that leads to challenging tasks in managing the energy between cells due to varying cell dynamics. Therefore, this study investigated the design of an end-to-end hybrid energy-storage and management system. The limitations of existing power electronics and control schemes were identified based on comparative analysis, both on a cell level and on a system level. Subsequently, an energy system was developed that utilized modular multi-level converters to manage the energy between the different cell types. The formulated control strategy accounted for various power modes and added immense flexibility in charge sharing through diverse switching states. Furthermore, the proposed configuration eliminated the conventional need for a system level drive inverter feeding the EV motor. Electro-mechanical modeling results and physical design merits verified the proposed configuration’s effectiveness in improving EV efficiency.